Securing a Cable Modem Against Computer Criminals

As the use of commercial broadband cable modem’s flourishes, the opportunity for computer criminals or hackers to attack computers attached to these networks similarly has skyrocketed. Unbeknownst to most users, a cable modem provides easy access to an attached computer. Protection of these computers is a three-stage process.

A first line of defense against malicious access is a hardware firewall. Without a hardware firewall, the attached computer is easily accessible. With a hardware firewall such as a Linksys Cable/Broadband router as the first layer of protection a hacker will not be able to see your computer as a first device attached to your cable modem.

The second line of defense is a software firewall. A heuristic firewall such as ZoneAlarm looks for suspicious activity per se in addition to an ever-evolving defined list of threats. ZoneAlarm uses a permission-based system to allow access to and from the Internet to be granted or denied by a user. For example, a number of attacks on Windows operating systems using Outlook as an email client, have exploited easy access to the Outlook
contacts database. Once accessed those attackers replicate themselves and redistribute information from the attacked computer to email addresses found on the victim’s computer. Obviously, distribution of confidential client information is not an option for any of us. So not protecting our information is not an option either.

The third and final line of defense is maintenance of current virus protection software. Most top of the line software packages will automatically access the publisher’s website to obtain a current list of threats or virus definitions. This third line of defense will provide protection in the event the other two layers do not intercept the malicious file(s) that can compromise your home or office network.

Remember that your security system is only as strong as the weakest link. So while we obviously will focus on our desktop computers, legitimate remote access to our networks with a laptop from home or from onsite from a courtroom or client’s office, will provide opportunities for hackers to exploit our systems. You must make sure that all devices accessing our networks are equipped to deter hackers. Furthermore all users must be aware of the best practices to prevent illicit access to your firm’s digital resources.

Secret Messages that are not Secret

There are secret messages in your documents that are not secret. Both major word processing packages, Word and Word Perfect, contain hidden information that unless carefully removed can be a rich source of information to an opponent to whom the document is digitally distributed. Documents contain far more information than can be seen on screen.

A document contains information about the author, creation and revision dates, and other information about the lineage of the publication. The metadata as it is referred to can be used by a party to track revisions, additions, and deletions from the text. Therefore, care should be used to strip documents of these attributes when the document is to be distributed outside of the firm. Tips on stripping these attributes are available from both Microsoft and Corel. The Microsoft resource can be found The Corel resource is located at

Surprisingly, the Microsoft Office stores all previous revisions of a Word document within the document itself. The revisions can be removed. One easy way to strip most of the identifiable information from document is to open a document in your word processor, select all of the text and copy it, open the Notepad application, paste the text into the Notepad document, and save the document as a text document.

Phishing and Spoofing


Phishing is not to be confused with ‘fishing.’ There is no cast net, no baiting of the hook, and no minnow awaiting a large-mouth bass. But there are plenty of wireless fly rods out there. What do I mean? Specifically, an enterprising nerd or computer wizard of the binary-off generation can send you a disguised email representing a company you know and highly regard. The message may be duplicating a well-known logo in a misleading email suggesting you, the gullible, reply and update their files. They will frequently ask for a Social Security Number, credit card number, username and password, and/or your bank account number. Such data provides a license for identity theft. It goes on all the time. You read stories of months and months of futile effort to rectify credit reports done in by the virtual criminals. Frequently, the bait appears as an online financial intermediary asking for an update of personal information. In reality, takers just feed the ‘phisher’ valuable key information used to exploit the theft of the vulnerable victims’ identities.


Another popular indoor sport for some phisherman is spoofing. The digital sportsmen are hacking wireless cellular networks. First, the angler finds a cellular telephone with voice mail. Second, the piscator spoofs the cellular phone number, fooling the cellular network into authorizing access to the cellular telephone’s features. Third, the woesome whaler harvests the data and voicemail stored in the victim’s account. Data can include voicemail, user identification information, address books, photos, and passwords.


How do they do it? Spoofing is easier and simpler than compromising most computer networks. We will not publish specifically where to go to spoof caller identification information. However, accept as fact, that information appearing to identify a caller can be falsified. Some cellular providers allow users to turn off the requirement that passwords be entered when accessing services from the user’s handset. The cellular caster then calls a cell phone number whose password is not required by the user – an option popular among many callers. The happy harpooner then gains entry into the victim’s voice mail, can control the options available to users (both authorized and otherwise), and has reign over whatever data and information is stored therein. A celebrity such as Paris Hilton and all her friends in her address book know all about it.


Avoiding phishing and spoofing requires vigilance. Don’t supply usernames and passwords to anyone. Networks and providers already know your username and password. Change passwords regularly and use your cell phone pin number to access your voicemail every time no matter how busy you may be. These basic precautions will not stop the ever-advancing threats, but will provide a safety net. Be wary and be warned from your lighthouse attendant from on the bay.

Authors: Albert Lucas, B.A. Mathematics and W.F. “Casey” Ebsary, Jr.,

Paper-less Office or Less-paper Office?

For a decade or so marketing hype has promoted the paperless office. Courts have begun to accept and in some instances require filings to be digital, on diskette, and/or on paper. According to a recent study 41 states now allow digital copies of documents into evidence. Late in 2002, the Supreme Court of Florida ordered mandatory filing of documents on computer diskette. Similarly, some federal courts, including the Eleventh Circuit, require electronic filing. Some civil and a few criminal cases are generating digital evidence and digitally imaged documents.

A typical white-collar criminal case can easily involve several gigabytes of data and/or several thousand printed pages of documents. Prices for Computer storage devices have plummeted. Storage capacity has sky-rocketed. A single gigabyte of storage can hold around 50,000 pages. Storage costs less than $1.50 per gigabyte. The costs associated with converting paper records to imaged and indexed data: around 24 cents a page.

To digitize or convert paper records to digital information includes high-speed imaging or scanning each page, followed by optical character recognition of the text in the documents, and finally associating the text of each image with the image files so that all of the documents could be searched by computer rather than trudging through the boxes that can fill a downtown conference room. This database containing the documents can be a deadly weapon in your arsenal. Offensively, patterns can be discerned and statistically relevant information can be easily analyzed. Defensively, smoking guns can be found and their problems addressed.

At first light, the most useful result of creating a digital copy of documents is analytical. However document imaging can also be useful for depositions, hearings, and trials. Once digitized the documents can be easily displayed on an ordinary television set, a computer monitor, a liquid crystal display projector or large screen plasma monitor.

While at the office much of the time, we do not need the original document. In such instances the digital image can be retrieved and reviewed on-screen or printed off the network printer. Document sharing and transmittal of copies is easier than ever once the digital copy of the documents has been produced. Simultaneous access to imaged materials by many users is a snap.

While away from the office, the document image can be retrieved and reviewed from a remote log-in to the network. The images or data can be stored on a notebook computer or on compact disk. Whether a desktop computer from another office, a notebook computer in court, or on a wireless device on the way to court, once the documents and files are accessible from anywhere, your handtruck and its cargo of banker’s boxes may be on its way to the junk heap. In the event of a disaster, copies of the data can be retrieved from storage and restored without missing a beat.

Adobe Acrobat has become the international standard for imaged documents. The program that creates the documents is around $250.00 per license. The program that reads the documents, Acrobat Reader, is free. Acrobat can be installed on almost any operating system, from Windows, to McIntosh, to Unix, to Linux, to Windows handheld devices, and Palm handheld devices. This yields documents that can be reviewed by anyone who receives a document and who obtains the free reader software.

Acrobat documents can be password protected, encrypted, digitally watermarked, made to be read-only, and digitally signed. Once created, an Acrobat copy can be authenticated and there can be high-level assurance that a copy has not been altered.

Can we eliminate the records center and empty our filing cabinets? Can we now eliminate putting pen to paper to sign documents? Do we really want to? What if the client wants his paperwork returned? Answers: Not yet; Yes; No; Oh-oh.

The paperless law office does not address the practicalities of the analog world. Clients may justifiably want their original source documents and courts may require them. This article was created paperlessly and was submitted to the publisher electronically via the Internet. There is not a paper copy of the article in my office. Notwithstanding the utility of digital record storage, and the promise of a paperless office, we are more likely approaching a less-paper office.

I, Spybot

Last year we published an article on securing a cable modem. In the few months since that article, new threats to computer security have arisen. Previously a hardware and/or software firewall coupled with anti-virus protection was sufficient. New threats have arisen from programs that are installed by mere visits to web pages. Recommendations for securing a mobile or home-office computer will be discussed along with some key strategies for protecting us from some new threats that are beyond viral.


A two-tiered approach to security is advisable. First, a hard firewall, as simple as a router can harden you defenses against nefarious efforts to access your computer network. At we use a simple device manufactured by LinkSys. It comes in a variety of flavors both wired and wireless. Key point here with the wireless variant is to enable password protection of the device and change the default password. Those with wireless mobile access and nothing better to do play a fairly common game – “war driving.” Contestants cruise the streets of Metropolis searching for unprotected wireless networks or networks whose passwords and username were never changed from the manufacturers’ default settings. Once a wireless connection is found, the players have access to your Internet connection, possibly to you data, and possibly to your office network.

Second, a software firewall is quite useful. They are frequently and often automatically updated and can respond to threats developed after the installation of the hard firewall. Heuristic or artificially intelligent firewalls are available. At we use ZoneAlarm. This new generation of protection enables a permission based security system that learns about the user’s legitimate accesses to the network and affirmatively requests permission from the user before allowing a program or process to access a protected computer. The program is trained to learn how and what legitimate users do on the protected computer. The program will log, alarm, and identify the evil-doer, and prevent the wicked from wandering.

Recently, one morning ZoneAlarm caught and blocked a suspicious effort to access a computer resource in our office. The artificially intelligent software firewall noted viral activity that had not previously been permitted by our systems’ users. Later that day, the media publicized the latest viral attack on the world’s computers and suggested users go to their anti-virus software and update it. We followed the advice, but were already protected from a threat. Since anti-virus and/or system software vendors had not yet responded to the attack, we would have been vulnerable.

spy bot search bot


While programs usually run and are visible to users in the taskbar along the bottom of your computer screen, spyware installs itself in your operating system and its effects are not noticed until a computer’s internet access has slowed, a browser home page has been changed, a new search bar appears, or myriad other odd symptoms surface. We use a two-tiered approach here also. AdAware from LavaSoft and SpyBot Search and Destroy are a one-two punch to knock out these veiled threats.

Software Updates

Computer networks, like chains, are only as strong as the weakest link. Make sure all machines accessing your network are secured with the latest operating system updates. Some system updates have file sizes that require hours to download by a telephone dial-up connection. The masses use dial up, virtually guaranteeing that these updates will not be installed on those computers. Consequently, new threats propagate from throngs of unprotected computers. Take the time to assure that all computers under your control or terminals that have access to your network are regularly keeping pace with these updates. Recovering compromised data from even a single destroyed hard disk drive begins at around $5,000.00 per disk drive and it is not uncommon for data to be unrecoverable.

Electronic Fingerprints

Electronic fingerprints remain available for review if you know what to look for. The skeletal remains of files deleted or history of persons and places visited are seemingly hidden in the world behind the computer’s display. A plan to recover this information by a team with computer forensic expertise can be a powerful tool for civil and criminal litigants, for law enforcement, and for computer support services.

File deletion either through an accident, an application, or through the familiar desktop icon, the trashcan, seldom makes recovery of the deleted files impossible. Use of these commands on most computers merely delays the inevitable recovery of the files by those with a desire to do so. Most computers delete files by eliminating entries on the directory or index of the hard drive, but really the data associated with those entries remains accessible. Experts frequently analogize such deletions to the tearing of the table of contents from a book. Even though the outline of the book has been removed, pages of content remain.

Many common consumer applications can resolve these deleted files. Recovery of the files for evidentiary purposes requires the use of a computer forensics expert. These professionals use techniques designed to maintain chains of custody and software designed to assure an audit trail for files recovered. Professional recovery using scientifically valid recovery methods prevents claims that files recovered are not admissible for a number of evidentiary foundational reasons.

The computer forensics expert can also help devise a strategy to efficiently recover relevant data from diverse types of storage devices and from a number of geographically distinct storage locations. A well-planned search strategy can maximize an investment made in a forensic investigation. One megabyte of data is roughly 180,000 words of text or about the size of a typical novel. One gigabyte of data is 1,000 megabytes and will contain the information that one might find in 1,000 books.

With the price per megabyte of storage plummeting, large capacity storage devices capable of storing 120 gigabytes are common and cost less than $200.00. A poorly planned or executed search strategy can be quite costly. Searching the wrong storage device or looking in the wrong places will mobilize a marathon of futility; like searching 120,000 books in the wrong library.

Electronic Case Files are the Law of the Land — Civil Litigators Can Safely Read this Too Criminal Law Section

Beginning on July 2004, you will be filing electronically in the Clerk’s Office for the United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida. This is the future. The train is leaving the station; you can be on it or under it.

Worry not, since implementation of the system can be painless. At my website,, and at my office we have been as paperless as possible for the past five years. Paperless technology makes storage, distribution, and duplication of case materials quick and easy. Remote access via the Internet allows effortless investigation and review of case files without a trip to the Clerk’s office. You will need Internet access, Software, a Power feed Scanner, and a little help.

Documents created in your word processing applications will be converted to Adobe Acrobat Documents and images, exhibits, and copies of documents will be fed to our favorite accessory, a power fed scanner where they too can be automatically batch converted to Adobe Acrobat format for transmission electronically to our friends at the clerk’s office.

One side benefit of the new filing requirement is convenience. Once implemented, case documents can be scanned and then retrieved remotely from across the hall or across the country. During one recent document-intensive case, members of our litigation team had compact discs containing most of the pleadings, documents, photos, sound and video recordings that were used in the matter. Everyone on our team had full access to almost all of the case documentation. No more schlepping banker’s boxes.

The system has been thoroughly tested to address security concerns. Electronic signatures will be applied to court filings and will be authenticated by usernames and passwords issued by the Clerk’s office. The National Security Agency, our nation’s cyber security agency has evaluated the system. Not a single filing has been hacked or cracked. This technology does not improve either the content or strengthen arguments that users will still place in the Court’s electronic case files.

Data Recovery: Major Disaster or Minor Loss?

“If mission critical data is lost, then call in a pro. Finagling with missing or damaged files can render them irrecoverable.”

Everyone has lost a document or probably will encounter someone who will try to “lose” a piece of evidence. On the innocent side, the computer could “freeze,” lose power, be hit by a hurricane, or data can be accidentally deleted. On the nefarious side an opponent may try to bury a smoking gun. What is not generally known is that loss or destruction can be remedied. The key is having the right tools, software, and expertise to recover the wayward data. This month we will cover the basics of data recovery.

First Issue: Where Do The Lost Files Go?

Most people believe the deletion is tantamount to destruction. Actually if piece of data is viewed as a page in a book, deletion is not analogous to running the page through a shredder. The better view is that deletion is like removing the entry from the book’s table of contents, while leaving the pages of information. The only things erased are a few characters of information that point to where the actual document is located. In time, the section of the hard drive will be overwritten, but in the short run, its still there.

In Technospeak: “The pointer, along with other pointers for every folder and file on the hard drive, is saved in a section near the beginning of the hard drive and is used by the operating system to create the directory tree structure. By erasing the pointer file, the actual file becomes invisible to the operating system, even though it is still there until the file system reuses the space.” Source: Ontrack Data.

Second Issue: How Do We Bring Them Back?

Initially the expert must find the original table of contents so we can find where and whether the actual files still exist. A technologist can rebuild the table of contents and bring the missing information back from the dark side. By deleting the entries in the table of contents, the computer allows data to be written where the deleted data used to reside. The files must be recovered before they are overwritten.

In Geekspeak: ”Every operating system has a file system, which is a unique method of indexing and keeping track of the files. Unfortunately for those that lose data, file systems can be very complex, which is why it can be so difficult to locate missing files. For instance, file systems that are used in business environments require security details and access transaction details. A good example is a transaction-based or journaling file system, whose goal is to log when each file is accessed, modified or saved – making the file system more complicated and harder to rebuild. . . . Recovery engineers are internally trained to work on data recovery, working with computer hardware for a number of years
and learning the low-level specifics of every type of file system.” Source: Ontrack Data.

Lost Files, Data Recovery

Lost Files

Third Issue: Should the Recovery be Outsourced?

From the legal perspective, it may be important to preserve a chain of custody and to have a witness who can testify about the methods used to retrieve the wayward file. From a cost perspective the file may only need to be retrieved from a the computer’s trash can (Macintosh) or recycling bin (Windows). There are also over-the-counter file recovery software packages for the do-it-yourselfer.

Deleted files can be damaged on their journey to the hinterlands. Subsequently recovered files can be damaged or incomplete or in need of repair. Here is where the pros come in. The pro will use a two-step process consisting of diagnosis of the data loss followed by the repair and recovery of the information. Seldom do the experts work on the original data. They most always attempt to make a mirror image of the files and always work on a copy.

In New Speak: “During this stage, recovery engineers can determine if the drive requires special attention from the cleanroom, which is an ultra-clean environment used when working with microscopic components. The cleanroom will work at an electronic and mechanical level to get the drive operational. This can include anything from physically cleaning the disk platters so they can spin properly to swapping out electrical components to power up the drive . . . . After the drive is operational and a copy of the drive can be made, data recovery engineers work to repair the file structures and produce a complete file listing that shows all of the files and directories on the volume. This file listing will also tell the customer if there are holes (or Input/Output errors) within the file itself. The final phase is the recovery phase. The goal of this phase is to copy out the data and backup that data on media that the customer requires. Source: Ontrack Data

In Technospeak, Geekspeak, or Newspeak, the message is the same: If mission critical data is lost, then call in a pro. Finagling with missing or damaged files can render them irrecoverable.

Tampa Computer Trial Attorney – Lawyer on Computers in Court

Tampa Computer Trial Attorney on Computers in Court

Law Enforcement and attorneys for the other side have a team working against you. Why not have your own Forensics Team working for you? More than ninety percent (90%) of documents are now created electronically, and less than thirty percent (30%) of those electronic documents are ever converted to paper. Rules on preserving electronically stored information and strategies to recover that data make having a Forensic eDiscovery team more important than ever before.


Tampa Computer Trial Attorney - Lawyer
Police have specialized equipment analyzing original digital media such as hard drives, disks, and flash drives, and optical disk drives in the computer forensics lab. There is special hardware and software that retrieves evidence from cell phones, including text messages (SMS) and pictures. For computers, specialized software is used to examine the computers and extract the evidence. We can too.


We use a team of attorney(s) and forensics expert(s) to help sort through data used in prosecution of federal indictments and state charges, fraud, hacking, theft of trade secrets, and other forms of cybercrimes.


With surge in popularity of mobile devices we can now forensically retrieve Information from mobile devices.  We also provide help in searching corporate e-mail, personal e-mail, Short Message Service (SMS) text messages, personal notes, calendar entries, photographs, address books, and inbound and outbound call logs. This type of information can be invaluable to prove certain facts for a case.

Remember – an expert can help preserve the chain of custody and this data can then be used in litigation.

Computer in Court? Tell Me Your Story 813-222-2220 .

History of Cell Phone Searches

Cell Phone Search Warrant

Cell Phone Search Warrant, Cell Phone Search, Search and Seizure

Search Warrant
Cell Phone

Cell Phone Search Warrant

Up until quite recently, there were exceptions to the general requirement that police get a Search Warrant for a cell phone. Cell phones have been a window into suspects’ activities, as police used these exceptions to get their hands on information found inside mobile devices. Obtaining a Search Warrant for a cell phone is not that hard to do. You can review a Search Warrant for a Cell Phone here:  Here is an actual iPhone Search Warrant . GPS or Global Positioning Satellite information found in mobile phones has also been used by police.

Up until around 2014, police could and did search digital information on a cell phone seized from an individual who was arrested. Defense Attorneys would frequently challenge such searches. These searches were frequently based upon “helping” arrested citizens by making sure their property was properly inventoried by the arresting officers for safekeeping by jail personnel or by the evidence unit at the arresting agency’s office. This rationale remains a frequent flier in broad invasive “inventory” searches of automobiles during traffic stops.

Cell Phone Search, Search and Seizure, Search Warrant

Cell Phone Search, Search and Seizure, Search Warrant

Cell Phone Search Warrant

Warrant Required
Mobile Devices
Florida had outlawed warrantless phone searches before the US Supreme Court. That ruling is discussed here. Now prohibited will be mobile device and cell phone searches without a warrant. Before the 2014 United States Supreme Court ruling here was another Court’s Ruling on a Cell Phone Search. Searches Incident to a lawful arrest were previously justified by cops using issues of police officer safety and prevention of destruction of evidence.
Now under Floridalaw, a Motion to Suppress Evidence can be filed pursuant to Rule 3.190(h), Florida Rules of Criminal Procedure. Illegal Search and seizure now applies to cell phones and the Courts may exclude illegally obtained evidence including, photographs, video, text messages, directory and location data, voice mails, and emails.

Case Summary: The US Supreme Court’s ruling is that a properly obtained and issued search warrant is generally required before search of a cell phone. Here is some language from the Court’s ruling.

“Cell phones differ in both a quantitative and a qualitative sense from other objects that might be kept on an arrestee’s person. The term “cell phone” is itself misleading shorthand; many of these devices are in fact minicomputers that also happen to have the capacity to be used as a telephone. They could just as easily be called cameras,video players, rolodexes, calendars, tape recorders, libraries, diaries, albums, televisions, maps, or newspapers.”
“The sum of an individual’s private life can be reconstructed through a thousand photographs labeledwith dates, locations, and descriptions; the same cannot besaid of a photograph or two of loved ones tucked into a wallet.”
“To further complicate the scope of the privacy interests at stake, the data a user views on many modern cell phones may not in fact be stored on the device itself. Treating a cell phone as a container whose contents may be searched incident to an arrest is a bit strained as an initial matter.”
“[T]he search incident to arrest exception does not apply to cell phones . . . .”

Some Excerpts from Florida Cell Phone Search Cases:

“However, we express great concern in permitting the officer to search appellant’s cell phone here where there was no indication the officer had reason to believe the cell phone contained evidence.”
“We are equally concerned that giving officers unbridled discretion to rummage through at will the entire contents of one’s cell phone, even where there is no basis for believing evidence of the crime of arrest will be found on the phone, creates a serious and recurring threat to the privacy of countless individuals.”